Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Civil Rights Movement
Suzanne E. Eckes
A civil right may include freedom of speech, the right to vote, or freedom of the press. Discrimination occurs when these rights are denied. Since the country was founded, African Americans were denied these rights. As a result, there was unprecedented energy after World War II to combat the discrimination. This energy presented itself in the form of boycotts, freedom rides, national rallies, and marches. The protests focused on ending discrimination, or more specifically, on protecting civil rights. In order to protect civil rights, Congress passed both federal statutes and constitutional amendments. In 1865, Congress voted to amend the Constitution, passing the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery in the United States. In 1868, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, to protect against deprivation of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law” and against denial “to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Congress also passed several ...