Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412939584 | Print ISBN: 9780761930877 | Online ISBN: 9781412939584| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Adaptiveness of Organizations
George J. Petersen
Until recently, most school organizations enjoyed considerable autonomy in their daily operations and did not concern themselves with the development of specialized adaptive functions. Political influence, formal and informal expectations, authority, and problems of perceived legitimacy have fostered a climate of accelerated change, compelling educational organizations to become increasingly responsive, innovative, and adaptive. The underlying factors driving transformation in public education's areas of operation are well publicized. Federal and state supported initiatives, like charter schools, vouchers, parental choice, high-stakes testing, teacher and administrator turnover and decentralization, coupled with shrinking budgets for professional development, families living in poverty, and fulfilling the needs of ethnically diverse and special education student populations, provoke substantive questions in the minds of many about the future of public education. In particular, the recently revised Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), also known as the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, Public Law 107–110, presents ...