Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: February 22, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412957403 | Print ISBN: 9781412956642 | Online ISBN: 9781412957403 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
No Child Left Behind–School Partnerships
Brenda F. Graham
For years, researchers, policymakers, and educational administrators have acknowledged that there is a profound gap in educational outcomes among children of different races, backgrounds, and cultures, particularly between poor children from ethnic minority groups and children from the White middle class. Due to disparities among students' learning levels, race/ethnicity, and socio-economic factors, as well as demographic changes in society, programs targeted for extended learning and school improvement must meet the needs of the whole student and include academic, physical, social, emotional, and mental health resources. The fact is that many students face problems that hinder their success in school. Moreover, many schools and districts work with limited resources and lack the infrastructure needed for school and student success. Responding to the need to provide alternate learning environments, Congress passed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2001. The NCLB raised the bar by issuing policy-based incentives that were created ...