Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: February 22, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412957403 | Print ISBN: 9781412956642 | Online ISBN: 9781412957403| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Mary-Kate Sableski & Jackie Marshall Arnold
The field of reading has undergone reform throughout the history of education, but particularly since the turn of the 21st century. These recent reform initiatives have been predominately driven by national initiatives. These initiatives have consequently influenced reading instruction at the state and local levels. A current climate of high-stakes testing has contributed to the increased importance of research-grounded instruction to inform the teaching of reading and the reforms driving that instruction. Major reform initiatives from the national, state, and local levels that have impacted reading instruction are discussed in this entry. Title I is a reform initiative embedded in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, issued first in 1965, then again in 2000. The issuing of the Act in 1965 marked the first distribution of federal funds for the compensatory education of students in poverty and struggling with reading. Compensatory reading instruction in 1965 under Title I was provided ...