Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: February 22, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412957403 | Print ISBN: 9781412956642 | Online ISBN: 9781412957403| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Although vocational education has ancient roots, the impetus for the development of vocational schools was not evident until the 1800s. Vocational education is typically defined as education that prepares individuals with the necessary skills to be successful at work. Now commonly referred to as career and technical education, vocational education has undergone many transformations since the 19th century as a result of the efforts of reformers, supporters, and dissenters. Because of various movements, legislation, and the addition of dynamic programs in career and technical education, the definition has evolved as educational systems change. At this point there is an advocacy to define career and technical education as education for both work and higher education. In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote a novel about an orphan boy who learned from interacting with his environment, as opposed to book learning. Rousseau believed that individuals did not necessarily have to be formally educated to ...