Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: February 22, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412957403 | Print ISBN: 9781412956642 | Online ISBN: 9781412957403| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
A basic definition of busing is the practice of transporting students between home and school on a bus. Although this may seem simple enough, busing was the source of what was arguably the biggest controversy in American education in the 20th century. The U.S. courts attempted to use busing as a means to racially integrate American schools and attempt to end decades of racial segregation. Although technically desegregated in 1954 by the landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954), schools remained largely segregated throughout the nation, especially in urban areas, due to trends in housing and traditional neighborhood segregation. Busing (also called forced busing or desegregation busing) came to be the reform tool by which the courts sought to end racial segregation of the U.S. school system. In 1896 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Brown ...