Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: November 27, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412953948 | Print ISBN: 9781412928168 | Online ISBN: 9781412953948| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), also commonly referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), are primarily spread through the exchange of bodily fluids during sexual contact. STDs may also be transmitted through blood-to-blood contact and from a woman to her baby during pregnancy or delivery (congenital transmission). Exposure to STDs can occur through any close exposure to the genitals, rectum, or mouth. Unprotected sexual contact increases the likelihood of contracting an STD. Abstaining from sexual contact can prevent STDs, and correct and consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of transmission. STDs include gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital herpes, syphilis, human papillomavirus or genital warts, lymphogranuloma venereum, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, and hepatitis B. Other infections that may be sexually transmitted include hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, scabies, and pubic lice. Having an STD increases the risk of becoming infected with HIV if one is exposed to HIV. ...