Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: November 27, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412953948 | Print ISBN: 9781412928168 | Online ISBN: 9781412953948| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Carl Stepnowsky & Joe Palau
An estimated 70 million people in the United States suffer from sleep problems, and more than half of those with sleep problems have a sleep disorder that is chronic. The four most prevalent sleep disorders are insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and periodic limb movements in sleep, with sleep apnea accounting for nearly 80% of all sleep diagnoses in sleep centers in the United States. About 30 million American adults have frequent or chronic insomnia. Approximately 18 million have obstructive sleep apnea, but only 10% to 20% have been diagnosed. An estimated 250,000 people have narcolepsy, and more than 5% of adults are affected by periodic limb movements in sleep syndrome. Sleep disorders have major societal impacts. Each year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) add approximately $16 billion annually to the cost of health care in the United States and result in $50 to $100 billion ...