Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: April 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963879 | Print ISBN: 9781412926942 | Online ISBN: 9781412963879| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
With the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, civil rights leaders redirected their focus on securing economic parity for all minorities. Operation PUSH (People United to Save [later changed to “Serve”] Humanity) was established in Chicago, in 1971, by Reverend Jesse Jackson, Sr., after the dissolution of Operation Breadbasket, the economic arm of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). In Chicago, Jackson worked as national director of Operation Breadbasket. In 1971, the SCLC Board of Directors suspended him for failing to incorporate the annual Black Business Expo in the name of the SCLC. Later that month, Jackson resigned and started Operation PUSH. Jackson's new group focused on “economic colonialism” by White-owned businesses. Using his “kingdom theory,” he described how Blacks could exert “the authority of kings” to control every aspect of the numerous economies that influence their lives. He argued that ...