Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: January 26, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412964517 | Print ISBN: 9781412909167 | Online ISBN: 9781412964517| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Hip-hop is a cultural movement started by African Americans and Latinos in the context of urban renewal, economic changes, and social dislocations in the mid-1970s South Bronx, New York City. The emergent culture incorporated several artistic activities, referred to as elements, that include emceeing (rapping), DJing, break dancing, and graffiti art. Today rap music receives the lion's share of attention by researchers even though hip-hop culture has expanded its global reach and scope to include journalism, activism, film, spoken word, fashion, literature, and advertising. This entry explores the ways hip-hop studies and gender studies have converged, and how hip-hop culture deals with homosexuality, and the development of a new type of hip-hop feminism. The nascent scholarship in rap music arose primarily from the interdisciplinary field of black studies in the early 1990s. Houston Baker, Tricia Rose, Michael Dyson, and Robin Kelley as well as journalists such as Nelson George provided ...