Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: April 21, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963855 | Print ISBN: 9781412941860 | Online ISBN: 9781412963855| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Muscular dystrophy encompasses a group of congenital disorders that are commonly characterized by progressive symmetrical degeneration of skeletal or voluntary muscles devoid of neural or sensory deficiency. Conversely, in some forms of muscular dystrophy involuntary muscles such as the heart and additional organs are affected. Connective tissue and fat deposits envelop the deteriorated muscles leading to an artificial perception of muscle strength. Muscular dystrophies are an assemblage of approximately 9 inherited genetic disorders. In addition to the nine classifications there are several variant forms subdivided by method of inheritance and age of onset. The patterns of inheritance are autosomal recessive, autosomal dominate, X-linked recessive and X-linked dominate. A diminutive percentage of cases are caused by spontaneous mutations. Recessive inheritance through multiple generations can also manifest as a spontaneous mutation. There are approximately 43 neuromuscular disorders that are often categorized under the umbrella of muscular dystrophy. There are four major global ...