Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: April 25, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963893 | Print ISBN: 9781412958783 | Online ISBN: 9781412963893| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS) , while a comparatively modern phenomenon, have existed in the form of charitable organizations or political associations since the 18th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries, many people formed specific, community-based organizations, designed to meet specific community needs, or to advance particular policies. The issues targeted by these groups were broad in scope and included women's rights, the status of the poor, local government reform issues, alcoholism, and, later, in the 18th century, trade union issues. Many of these groups converged to work together for a common goal. A good example is the anti-slavery movement, founded in England in the late 18th century, which galvanized the establishment of many groups, that worked together to develop the World Anti-Slavery Convention (1840). Other examples include the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations (YMCAs), founded in 1855, and the International Committee for the Red Cross, founded in 1863. ...