Philip H. Howard
Eco-labeling is a voluntary strategy that involves placing identifiers on goods and services to represent ecological and/or social criteria. It is a market-based approach to achieve sustainability goals by providing consumers with information that would otherwise be difficult to ascertain. This allows interested consumers to support the practices embodied in these criteria through their purchases. It also assists producers to support their sustainability efforts, if providing such information leads to increased sales and/or the ability to charge higher prices. Information on eco-labels is typically represented in the form of a symbol, but may include descriptions of the criteria, or even specific figures. An eco-label for greenhouse gas reduction, for example, might include a symbol that represents reduced emissions, a brief definition of carbon footprints, or the number of grams of carbon dioxide reduced. Eco-labels have been developed for goods and services in industries including forestry, energy, tourism, fisheries, and agriculture. ...