Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: March 31, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412996754 | Print ISBN: 9781412978835 | Online ISBN: 9781412996754| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this handbook
Chapter 5: Racial Identity and Ethnic Identity Measures
Racial identity and ethnic identity measures Even though they are not synonymous, the terms racial identity and ethnic identity have often been used interchangeably in the literature (Helms, 2007; Trimble, 2007; Trimble, Helms, & Root, 2002). Whereas ethnic identity addresses sense of affiliation with one's ethnic group, racial identity refers to how racial minorities develop their self-concept in the context of racial oppression. Though distinct, racial identity development and ethnic identity development may be viewed as organizing constructs that share a common meaning. Both constructs (1) describe a sense of belonging to a social group through some perceived or attributed core of shared characteristics, (2) are associated with positive or negative attitudes toward one's social group as well as that of out-groups, and (3) vary in importance across time and context (Helms & Talleyrand, 1997; Phinney & Ong, 2007; Sellers, Smith, Shelton, Rowley, & Chavous, 1998; Trimble et al., Erikson's ...