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The SAGE Handbook of Nonverbal Communication

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The SAGE Handbook of Nonverbal Communication

Valerie Manusov & Miles L. Patterson

Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: June 22, 2009 | DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412976152 | Print ISBN: 9781412904049 | Online ISBN: 9781412976152 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.

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Chapter 12: Culture and Nonverbal Behavior

David Matsumoto

Culture and nonverbal behavior Over the history of time, people have had to solve a host of distinct social problems in order to adapt and thus achieve reproductive success, including negotiating complex status hierarchies, forming successful work and social groups, attracting mates, fighting off potential rivals of food and sexual partners, giving birth and raising children, and battling nature (Buss, 1991, 2001). Universal biological imperatives are associated with a universal set of psychological problems that people need to solve in order to survive; thus, all individuals and groups of individuals must create ways to deal with these universal problems. The ways that each group develops then become their culture. In my view, culture is the product of the interaction between universal biological needs and functions, universal social problems created to address those needs, and the contexts in which people live. Culture is created as people adapt to their environments in ...

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