Chapter 29: Cross-Cultural Issues in Organizational Behavior
Heidi K. Gardner & P. Christopher Earley
Cross-cultural issues in organizational behavior Globalization and regionalization of business have increasingly compelled us to integrate the concept of cultural variation into business research and practice. Research covering these dynamics spans a wide array of academic disciplines, including international business, comparative management, and cross-cultural social, organizational and cognitive psychology. This chapter focuses on the field of cross-cultural organizational behavior, which Gelfand et al. (2007: 20.2) define as ‘… the study of cross-cultural similarities and differences in processes and behavior at work and the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces in multicultural domestic and international contexts.’ Cross-cultural organizational behavior covers several levels of analysis, examining how culture affects intra-individual phenomena (e.g., cognition, emotions), interpersonal phenomena (e.g., teams, communications, power) and firm-level phenomena (e.g., work practices, organizational structure). A growing and important area of cross-cultural organizational behavior focuses on meso research examining the interplay between these levels of analysis. This chapter addresses how culture ...