Chapter 17: Party Patronage and Party Colonization of the State
Wolfgang C. Müller
Party patronage and party colonization of the state Party patronage is the use of public resources in particularistic and direct exchanges between clients and party politicians or party functionaries. Directness means that, in contrast to programmatic linkages, the parties are able to identify their clients individually and engage in a contract-like exchange relationship in which politicians provide goods and services in exchange for some kind of support. Typically, party patronage is disguised for official purposes as norm application and, indeed, many patronage acts do not violate legal norms. Yet, clients who receive public goods and services understand that their party connection has been critical for that purpose. A party connection may be essential because the bureaucracy is inefficient and unresponsive and/or because it helps to use administrative discretion to the benefit of the client, indeed, up to the point of bending the law. A judgemental classification of some Western democracies, ...