Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Carl W. Dundas
Electoral campaigns are the means by which political parties, alliances, coalitions, and candidates convey their policies and election programs to the electorate in an election contest. Electoral campaigns are essential in a democratic society that holds national and local elections on a periodic basis. International standards governing the environment, conduct, and principles involved in electoral campaigns in democratic elections have evolved over the past several decades. In order to create an environment conducive to the organization and conduct of free and fair elections, a number of checks and balances have been developed over time to assist parties and candidates in ensuring a level playing field during the campaign period. Similarly, measures have been developed to avoid or reduce the threat of intimidation or violence against candidates, parties, or their supporters. In addition to provisions dealing with election campaigns in the given legal framework, a code of conduct aimed at parties, ...