Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Fascism has become a generic term used to represent a political movement that developed between the two world wars principally in Europe, with a few extensions notably in Latin America. This term was employed for the first time as a partisan label in Italy in 1919 by Benito Mussolini, who appealed to younger veterans to establish Fasci di combattimento . In Italy, a new type of political organization emerged, developed, and was eventually imposed—one that more or less indirectly foreshadowed and inspired a set of movements and political regimes, including Adolf Hitler's National Socialism in Germany, Léon Degrelle's Rexisme in Belgium, Oswald Mosley's Fascist Union in Great Britain, Corneliu Codreanu's Iron Guard in Romania, Ferenc Szàlasi's Arrow Cross Party in Hungary, José Antonio Primo de Rivera's Falange in Spain, Plinio Salgado's Integralist Action in Brazil, and Jacques Doriot's French Popular Party in France. Within this group, important differences persisted among ...