Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Lobbying is the interaction of an individual, group, interest, or organization with government to influence current policy or create a situation conducive to shaping future policy. It is a fundamental and omnipresent aspect of all political systems, from liberal to elitist democracies, to authoritarian and even totalitarian regimes. Yet although there are common elements to lobbying across all political systems, the particular form that the lobbying process takes in a country, state, province, city, or even internationally, is shaped by several governmental, political, and cultural elements. Furthermore, lobbying is inextricably bound with the activities of lobbyists—that is, those representing individuals, collective interests, and interest groups to government. This entry draws on research on lobbying across all political systems but focuses mainly on established liberal democracies and developing democracies. First, we look at the relationship between practical politics and political science work on lobbying, followed by the common denominators of lobbying ...