Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Werner J. Patzelt
The term opposition comes from the Latin word opponere , meaning to put something in front of something else. An actor's opponents are those who want to block his way. Such a conflicting situation may be a game with established rules in which the opponent accepts defeat. Some opponents may, however, try to end the game and set up new rules that work for their (exclusive) advantage. When the rules of game allow everyone to enter and to compete under fair conditions, players with limited skill may lose repeatedly or be excluded for not abiding by the rules. In other cases, games may exclude players arbitrarily, or the rules may be unfair. Against this background, we can distinguish four types of fighting against a competitor: 1. Opposition refers to those trying to defeat a so far victorious competitor but following all rules of the game. 2. Extremists are those 3. ...