Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Panel Data Analysis
James E. Monogan III
Panel data consist of a cross-section of “individuals” for which there are repeated observations over time. Individuals can be any cross-sectional unit of analysis, such as states, dyads, or survey respondents. Panel data sets are typically dichotomized between long panels, which have many measurement occasions relative to the size of the cross section, and short panels, which have many individuals in the cross section relative to the number of repeated measurement occasions, or “waves.” In general, the methods associated with the term panel data analysis or longitudinal analysis focus on short panels, while methods under the time-series cross section umbrella focus more on analyzing long panels. The key advantage of panel data is that such data offer the opportunity to better evaluate causal propositions than strictly cross-sectional data. Whereas cross-sectional data only allow the researcher to observe covariances, panel data further allow the researcher to observe whether a change Whenever ...