Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Among scholars of political culture, the term subject culture signifies a specific subtype whose members are not actively participating in the central political system. The members of all political systems at all times exhibit significant differences in their orientations, attitudes, and beliefs about politics. Many of the differences depend on the inequalities in access to the political opportunities existing in these political systems. Especially, gender differences, with women disadvantaged vis-à-vis men, are clearly the product of solidly structured biases against women's participation in politics. Many differences are also the consequence of some aspects of the processes of socialization. Finally, some of the differences simply derive from the preferences of the individuals, from their willingness to devote more or less of their time and energy to learning about politics and to taking part in political activities. Some political cultures encourage and reward political knowledge, involvement, and participation; others do not. The ...