Pub. date: 2011 | Online Pub. Date: October 04, 2011 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412994163 | Print ISBN: 9781412959636 | Online ISBN: 9781412994163| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Tanja A. Börzel & Eva G. Heidbreder
Conditionality in political science refers to the use of the conditions an actor attaches to awarding benefits to—or to not imposing costs on—another actor in order to influence his behavior. Benefits are granted only if the target actor has fulfilled certain requirements ( ex ante conditionality). Such external rewards can also be suspended or withdrawn if the recipient reneges on his commitment ( ex post conditionality). Rather than withdrawing a promised or granted reward (positive conditionality), the violation of predetermined conditions can also be punished (negative conditionality). Conditionality targets either performance and outcomes (policy conditionality) or the governance and administrative systems (political/democratic conditionality). The term refers more narrowly to the Bretton Woods institutions seeking to impose the Washington Consensus around the world or, more broadly, to all explicit and implicit requirements for lending, including covenants for project-based aid, environmental safeguards, and performance-based aid allocation. This entry follows the broader understanding ...