Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: December 16, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412972048 | Print ISBN: 9780761929574 | Online ISBN: 9781412972048| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
The European media are a hodgepodge of rapidly transforming institutions, journalistic styles, structures of ownership, and politicoeconomic priorities, born of centuries of conflicting values, traditions, rules, and ambitions. (This entry covers European countries other than France, Germany, Russia, and Scandinavia, which are treated elsewhere in this encyclopedia.) No viable analysis of “European” anything can be undertaken without some degree of generalization and categorization; the most useful theoretical distinction to make is that between “Western” and “Eastern” European societies. While this distinction is not without obvious problems (such as its tendency to operate as a self-fulfilling prophecy), it is relatively easy to justify, given the two regions' differing economic, political, and ideological coordinates for at least the past century. Due to their prominent position in countries across Europe, national newspapers have always shaped their goals, standards, and practices in close alignment with the host country's politico-economic system. Since Western and Eastern ...