Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: December 16, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412972048 | Print ISBN: 9780761929574 | Online ISBN: 9781412972048| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Orayb Aref Najjar
Al-Manar (“The Lighthouse”) is a satellite television service based in Lebanon. It is the mouthpiece of Hizbullah (The Party of God), established in the mid-1980s as an umbrella group uniting religious Shi'a Muslim groups in Lebanon in the wake of the Israeli invasion. The organization played a major role in ending Israel's 22-year occupation of the South of Lebanon, with the exception of the Sheba'a farms, which Israel still occupied in 2008. As Al-Manar explained on its website when it was established in June 1991, the need for the channel arose because, even when 20 percent of Lebanon was under Israeli occupation, it was not unusual for Lebanon to be under Israeli fire “while singers chanted on numerous TV channels simultaneously. There had to be a TV that committed itself to put in images the suffering of our people in the occupied territories.” Al-Manar identified five parts of its communication ...