Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: December 16, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412972048 | Print ISBN: 9780761929574 | Online ISBN: 9781412972048| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Frank J. Romano
Printing is the reproduction of text and images in quantity on paper. Modern printing has become highly sophisticated and more digital in nature and has been transformed from art to science. New digital printing processes combine the use of advanced pre-media systems (preparation of content for printing or publishing), lasers, plates, presses, inks, papers, electronic controls, and digital imaging and printing systems. Printing from movable (or exchangeable) type appeared in China and Korea in the eleventh century. The oldest known printed rather than manuscript text was printed from clay in Korea in 1397 A.D. In 1440, Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz (Germany) introduced printing with ink on paper to the Western world with his invention of movable cast metal type mounted on a converted wine press. Until Gutenberg's invention, all books in the West were laboriously handwritten or copied by scribes. Changes in press construction evolved slowly until the first all-metal ...