Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: December 16, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412972048 | Print ISBN: 9780761929574 | Online ISBN: 9781412972048| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Theresa Rose Crapanzano
The earliest reporters in the United States worked for newspapers in the 1700s and magazines in the 1800s. While an increasing number of journalists now work for broadcast or online outlets, the majority of reporters in the United States are still employed by print publications. According to a 2002 study of the editorial workforce of news media in the United States, 70.5 percent of fulltime journalists were working in print media, with the majority of those (50.6 percent) employed by daily newspapers. While the field's earliest practitioners were almost all white men, women and minorities have more recently made notable inroads. Among different media, female journalists are represented most strongly at news magazines (where they make up 43.5 percent of the workforce as opposed to 33 percent at daily newspapers and 36.9 percent at weekly newspapers). Some scholars attribute this distribution to more attractive hours, pay, and benefits at news ...