Pub. date: 2004 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952415 | Print ISBN: 9780761926498 | Online ISBN: 9781412952415| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Today, police officers are being called upon more often to resolve dangerous situations outside of their conventional training and technology. The incidents that challenge traditional problem-solving capabilities vary, and include such things as People who call for police “assistance” when attempting suicide Noncompliant armed subjects who do not create a direct threat Historically, officers facing such tactical dilemmas had few options between verbal challenges and deadly force. As a result, police agencies have begun adopting a variety of tools to assist in such endeavors, and three of the more common are pepper spray, impact projectiles, and electromuscular disruption systems. Since 1923 and the creation of the first civilian chemical munitions company, law enforcement has sought out methods, tools, tactics, and techniques to assist with subduing violent individuals through “less than deadly” force. During the turbulent 1960s, President Lyndon Johnson created a Blue Ribbon Commission to study crime and violence. One ...