Pub. date: 2004 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952415 | Print ISBN: 9780761926498 | Online ISBN: 9781412952415| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Situated east of the Korean Peninsula, Japan is an island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan with an area of 377,835 square kilometers and a population of 127 million people (July 2003 estimate). There have been two major transformations in the modern Japanese police system since 1874. The first change occurred during the Meiji Restoration in 1868 and the second after World War II. During the Meiji Restoration period, the government established a German-style civil police system and used the police forces to promote modernization and unification of the nation. As such, the police represented and reinforced the values, public morals, and official policies of their regime. The police involvement in political and social affairs was one of the foundations of this authoritarian state until the postwar period. Under the U.S. occupancy after World War II, the position of Ministry of Home Affairs that had ...