Pub. date: 2004 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952415 | Print ISBN: 9780761926498 | Online ISBN: 9781412952415| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Pakistan is located on the Arabian Sea, between India, Afghanistan, Iran, and China. It covers 803,940 square kilometers and has a population of 150 million people (July 2003 estimate). Pakistan separated from India in 1947, and its relations with India have been tense since that time, particularly in the province of Kashmir, whose status is disputed. Administratively, Pakistan consists of four provinces and a tribal territory (bordering Afghanistan), which is federally administered but largely autonomous. The capital, Islamabad, is also a separately administered federal territory. Although outdated, the applicable law concerning the police function in Pakistan dates from colonial times, when the Police Act of 1861 organized a force similar to the Irish Constabulary. Pakistan is a developing country in which some critics claim the police continue to act toward the government as they did when it was under a colonial power; that is, the perception that the police role ...