Pub. date: 2004 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952415 | Print ISBN: 9780761926498 | Online ISBN: 9781412952415| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Michael Sadykiewicz & Maria (Maki) Haberfeld
Located in Central Europe, between Germany, Russia, and other former Soviet satellite countries, Poland has an area of 312,685 square kilometers and a population of 38.6 million people (July 2003 estimate). It is administratively divided into 16 provinces ( Voivodships Wojewodztwa ). Poland's legal system is a mixture of civil law with steadily decreasing holdovers from the communist legacy. The head of state is the President, who is elected for a 5-year term by popular vote. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and approved by the parliament. Cabinet ministers are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and approved by parliament. Poland's legislature is a bicameral National Assembly ( Zgromadzenie Narodowe ) consisting of a lower House ( Sejm , which has 460 seats elected by popular vote) and the Senate ( Senat , which has 100 seats elected by popular vote). Poland is ...