Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952668 | Print ISBN: 9781412909488 | Online ISBN: 9781412952668| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Tests of human intelligence are designed to provide an estimate of an individual's or a group's ability to perform cognitive tasks. Intelligence tests produce an intelligence quotient (IQ) score and are generally intended to measure several related cognitive functions. Intelligence tests are generally created using current definitions of intelligence, which tend to emphasize the ability to adjust to the environment, the ability to learn, and the ability to think abstractly. Over time, the definition of intelligence has expanded to include survey measures of skills such as adaptation to the environment, basic mental processes, and higher-order thinking (i.e., reasoning and problem solving). As the definition of intelligence has changed, so have the methods for measuring intelligence. Whereas early testing focused on comparisons between chronological age and mental age, current methods appreciate biological and environmental factors in the development and expression of intelligence and often include a norm-referenced comparison group for computing ...