Pub. date: 2006 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952668 | Print ISBN: 9781412909488 | Online ISBN: 9781412952668| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
White Racial Identity
Mark M. Leach
White racial identity theories are an influential framework for understanding individual psychological development in a racialized society. This framework comprises White racial identity theory and White racial consciousness theory . Issues such as White privilege, social power, and racial ideation are addressed by these theories, which provide a way to understand within group variation in White racial identities and attitudes. These constructs have been used to determine how people structure racial information cognitively and behaviorally across a wide range of situations and settings, such as counseling dyads, multicultural competence, and sports consultation, and to further theory refinement with regard to the relationship with religious orientation and personality development. To understand White racial identity theories, one must first have a brief understanding of their history and their association with Black racial identity theories. During the 1970s, to delineate within-group differences among racial groups, racial identity theories were constructed by William Cross ...