Pub. date: 2007 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952651 | Print ISBN: 9781412924702 | Online ISBN: 9781412952651| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
In 1983, S. J. Ashford and L. L. Cummings challenged our traditional understanding of feedback in organizations. Until that time, feedback had been viewed primarily as a managerial resource that could be used to direct the behavior of employees toward desired goals. However, Ashford and Cummings's research shifted the focus of feedback from the giver to the receiver, describing feedback as a resource that can be elicited by employees when they experience uncertainty about how well they are performing. Since the publication of this seminal work, the idea that employees have some degree of control over the feedback they receive has become recognized and widely accepted. Feedback is no longer seen only as an organizational tool that can be used by a supervisor but as a resource that can be managed by any member of an organization, such as an employee. Feedback seeking occurs when employees purposefully monitor their The ...