Pub. date: 2007 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952651 | Print ISBN: 9781412924702 | Online ISBN: 9781412952651| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Robert R. Sinclair & Celina M. Oliver
Hardiness consists of three interrelated belief systems people have about their relationship to their world. Commitment refers to people's ability to find meaning in events that happen to them. People who are high in commitment feel involved in and engaged by events in their lives rather than feeling alienated, disengaged, or disconnected. Control refers to the sense that, through effort, people can influence the world. People who are high in control feel capable of responding to events in their lives rather than helpless. Challenge refers to the belief that to be fulfilled, people must gain wisdom from experience, rather than living a life that is completely safe, secure, and routine. People who are high in challenge tend to view potentially stressful events as opportunities for personal growth, rather than feeling threatened by the world. Hardiness researchers regard these three belief systems as reflecting people's dispositional resilience to the detrimental In ...