Pub. date: 2007 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952651 | Print ISBN: 9781412924702 | Online ISBN: 9781412952651| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil Rights Act of 1991
Mark V. Roehling & Richard A. Posthuma
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA 1964) is a landmark piece of legislation that created the legal basis for nondiscrimination in housing, education, public accommodations, federally assisted programs, and employment. Title VII of the CRA 1964 prohibits discrimination in employment based on an individual's race, color, religion, sex, or ethnic origin. This prohibition applies to a wide range of employment actions, including hiring, promotion, training, compensation, disciplinary actions, discharging of employees, and other actions pertaining to the “terms, conditions, or privileges of employment” as set forth in the act. Title VII also makes it unlawful for an employer to take retaliatory action against any individual for opposing employment practices made unlawful by Title VII; filing a discrimination charge; or testifying, assisting, or participating in an investigation, proceeding, or hearing under Title VII. The act generally applies to all employers with 15 or more employees; the U.S. government, however, is ...