Pub. date: 2007 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952651 | Print ISBN: 9781412924702 | Online ISBN: 9781412952651| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Angelo S. DeNisi
The term 360-degree feedback refers to an appraisal and feedback system in which an employee (typically someone in a managerial or supervisory position) is evaluated by one or more supervisors, peers, and subordinates. These systems, sometimes called multi-source appraisals , are generally expensive, and the ratings produced by them should be used as a feedback tool only. That is, numerous scholars have recommended that 360-degree ratings not be used for any decisions often associated with appraisals; yet there is a fair amount of evidence that these ratings are often used for making decisions about merit pay raises and promotions. Considerable research had led to proposals for 360-degree systems, and several papers have critically analyzed their use in practice. Most of these papers have focused only on the reasons why 360-degree feedback may not be as effective as organizations would prefer, but very little research has actually evaluated the effectiveness of ...