Pub. date: 2005 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952514 | Print ISBN: 9780761927310 | Online ISBN: 9781412952514| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Black Panther Party
Ihekwoaba D. Onwudiwe & Emmanuel C. Onyeozili
The Black Panther Party (BPP) was formed in October 1966, in Oakland, California, by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. At the time, it was the most prominent revolutionary black power organization. At its peak, the BPP maintained between 10,000 and 30,000 members across more than 30 chapters in North America. The BPP stressed black cultural pride and promoted educational programs and other community activities. Its political and economic ideology rested on Marxist revolutionary tenets that called for black power, armed resistance, the release of all blacks from jails, and payment of compensation to African Americans for centuries of exploitation. Early BPP members sought to protect blacks against the police's unnecessary punitive use of force. Members patrolled urban ghetto areas with firearms and law books to prevent police brutality and petitapartheid practices such as police harassment, illegal arrests, stop and frisks, selective enforcement of the law, racial profiling, and so ...