Pub. date: 2005 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2007 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412952514 | Print ISBN: 9780761927310 | Online ISBN: 9781412952514 | Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
T. A. Ryan
As with most other jobs, new correctional staff undergo period of training before they enter the institutions where they will work. As attempts have been made to professionalize the career of corrections, training has become more detailed and continuous. These days, most officers are expected to participate in job-skills sessions throughout their tenures. The effectiveness and level of such courses, however, are often contentious. Little attention was given to correctional training in the United States until the 1960s. As late as 1966, more than half the correctional systems had no organized training, and most correctional agencies had no central unit for planning and implementing it. It was not until Congress established the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), with primary responsibility for administering a massive grant program to support state and local criminal justice training, that a national effort began to provide instruction for line staff in correctional institutions and prisons. ...