Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: June 02, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412971928 | Print ISBN: 9781412950855 | Online ISBN: 9781412971928| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Houses of Refuge
Tiffiney Y. Barfield-Cottledge
The housing of delinquent youth in America has been a major concern throughout history. With the influx of immigrant families entering the United States in the late 1700s and early 1800s, increased juvenile presence and delinquency quickly became a social concern. As the result of increased juvenile presence on the streets, houses of refuge were proposed as a solution to juvenile delinquency. Throughout history, houses of refuge have been consistently defined as care facilities developed by the child savers (reformers who developed programs for troubled and neglected youth). Although houses of refuge existed ostensibly to protect potentially criminal youth from being easily influenced by the negative aspects of society, some critics argue that the use of houses of refuge was discriminatory, affecting only poor White immigrants while excluding Blacks. Particular attention has been given to historical discrimination and segregation of Black and White youth in juvenile facilities, as well as ...