Pub. date: 2009 | Online Pub. Date: June 02, 2009 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412971928 | Print ISBN: 9781412950855 | Online ISBN: 9781412971928| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Marlyn J. Jones
Increasingly, deportation, a routine state practice comprising various social and political exclusions, banishment, or expulsion of noncitizens or forcible removal of nationals from a country, has become the panacea for migrant management. The policy of deportation is not new, nor is its use confined to a specific epoch, determinate groups, or particular countries. Nations have used deportation as a form of punishment and as a scapegoat mechanism to “cleanse society” of persons deemed “dangerous” or “undesirable” but disproportionately to expel ethnic or racial groups deemed unfavorable. Used extensively worldwide, deportation has been justified by, among other factors, political beliefs, health status, race or ethnic membership, religion, and sexual orientation. Deportation policies highlight historical links between racialization and immigration as evidenced by targeting individuals often based on their physical characteristics whether they are legal immigrants or not. The Yearbook of Immigration Statistics shows that between 1892 and 2005, a period U.S. ...