Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: May 28, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963930 | Print ISBN: 9781412941655 | Online ISBN: 9781412963930| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Philip R. Kavanaugh
Heroin is a semisynthetic substance derived from the resin of opium poppies, which are grown widely in South America, the Middle East, and Asia. Heroin can be injected, smoked, or sniffed. Reported effects include vomiting and nausea for first-time users, followed by intense euphoria (“rush”) accompanied by flushed skin, dry mouth, and impaired mental functioning. Heroin was first manufactured in 1898 by the Bayer pharmaceutical company and marketed heavily as a treatment for respiratory ailments. Heroin was originally believed to cure morphine addiction, but doctors soon realized it was more potent and addictive than morphine. Its addictive potential was an important factor in U.S. restriction under the Harrison Narcotics Act in 1914 and in its full criminalization in 1919. Presently, the U.S. Drug Enforcement ...