Pub. date: 2008 | Online Pub. Date: September 15, 2008 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412963954 | Print ISBN: 9781412959087 | Online ISBN: 9781412963954| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this encyclopedia
Sameen Arshad & Quratulain Sumra & Quratulain Fatima Masood & Muhammad Bilal & Usman Ali Abid
CLONING IS A process by which identical copies, or clones, of something are made. In biological sciences, it is concerned with making identical copies of biological material such as DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. It is an asexual (involving only one parent) method of reproduction. Stem cell research is often confused with cloning as both involve the use of embryonic stem cells. While reproductive and therapeutic cloning only involve the use of embryos, stem cell research involves the use of adult stems cells, stem cells from fetuses, umbilical cord blood cells, and amni—otic fluid, along with embryonic stem cells, to find cures for a variety of degenerative diseases. There are three main types of cloning: recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning technology has been in use since 1970s and involves isolating a defined DNA sequence ...