Pub. date: 2010 | Online Pub. Date: October 18, 2010 | DOI: 10.4135/9781412979344 | Print ISBN: 9781412960830 | Online ISBN: 9781412979344| Publisher:SAGE Publications, Inc.About this handbook
Chapter 64: Women's Leadership in the Development of American Indian Studies
Clara Sue Kidwell
Women's leadership in the development of American Indian studies There is a certain irony in considering American Indian women as leaders in higher education in contemporary American society. Historically, formal education was the tool of European colonial and American governments to assimilate American Indians into civilized society, whereas leaders of native nations saw schools as a way of learning to deal with encroaching outside powers in order to protect their own governments and territories. Despite the policies of the U.S. government to destroy the cultural identity of Indian children and the integrity of American Indian tribal governments, tribes survived. During the tumultuous era of the civil rights movement in the 1960s, they took control of their own higher education institutions by establishing tribally controlled community colleges. Indian students also began entering public and private colleges and universities in increasing numbers, and American Indian/Native American Studies programs appeared in a number ...